NOX EMISSIONS. Generating heavy criticism from industry, on September 24 the Environmental Protection Agency released its long-awaited final rules on nitrogen oxide...
- condensors, static var compensators, etc.;
- Due to the higher reactive impedance and the resulting difficulty in moving reactive power, the strength of the system to withstand voltage instability is location dependent; and
- Reactive power losses in the transmission grids are rising due to increased intra- and inter-zone energy transfer levels.
As a result, several utilities have suffered from voltage stability incidents, and some of which evolved into voltage collapses in the 1990s. The blackout of Aug. 14, 2003, was made much worse by uncontrolled voltage oscillations. Dynamic voltage control provided by local generators or converters could have a system-wide functionality in preventing future voltage collapses. The transmission network can consume so much reactive power that VAR supply from remote generators can fail to enter a load area. Thus there is a significant value for reactive power delivery and dynamic reactive reserves .
1. G. Huang, H. Zhang, "Dynamic Voltage Stability Reserve Studies for Deregulated Environment," IEEE Power Engineering Sum- mer Meeting, 15-19 July 2001, pp. 301-306
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