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Carbon and the Constitution

State GHG policies confront federal roadblocks.

Fortnightly Magazine - April 2009

RGGI Working Group].

6. Lisa Wood, RGGI Effect Goes Beyond Mandates, Brings Wave of Changes to New England Energy Policy, Electric Util. Week , Sept. 1, 2008 at 1.

7. McKibben, supra, at 23 (quoting Jim Hansen, The Threat to the Planet , N.Y. Rev. Books, July 13, 2006).

8. See Reg’l Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Goals, Proposed Tasks, Short-Term Action Items (2003) .

9. Roman Kramarchuk, All Out Auctions? , ENVTL. FIN., Mar. 2007, at 45, 45 (noting that EPA auctions only 1 percent of total SO2 allowances and this doesn’t include any auction to pre-existing sources, which are freely allocated to electric power generators).

10. See Harvard Electric Policy Group, Rapporteur’s Summary at the Harvard Electric Policy Group 49th Plenary Session 34 , at 38. (Dec. 6-7, 2007) .

11. Cathy Cash & Paul Whitehead, All-Auction Allowances Get Promoted on Capitol Hill, as Europe Heads that Way, Electric Util. Week , Jan. 28, 2008, at 1.

12. Comm’n of the European Communities, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2003/87/EC, so as to Improve and Extend the Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading System of the Community 15 (2008).

13. California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, Cal. Health & Safety Code §§ 38500-38599 (West 2007).

14. Cal. Energy Comm’n., History of California’s Involvement in Air Pollution and Global Climate Change (2008) .

15. Lisa Weinzimer, California Regulators Call for ‘First-Seller’ Variation of Cap-and-Trade GHG Approach, Electric Util. Week , Feb. 18, 2008, at 17. See generally, Midwestern Governor’s Ass’n, Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Accord , 2007 (Nov. 15, 2007); Mike Granstaff,, Cap and Trade-A Primer (Jan. 21, 2008).

16. Steven Ferrey, Soft Paths, Hard Choices: Environmental Lessons in the Aftermath of California’s Electric Deregulation Debacle , 23 Va. Envtl.J. 251, 297 (2004).

17. Order Instituting Rulemaking to Implement the Commission’s Procurement Incentive Framework and to Examine the Integration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards into Procurement Policies, R.06-04-009, D.07-09-017, 2007 Cal. P.U.C. LEXIS 330 (Cal. Pub. Utils. Comm’n. Sept. 6, 2007). ; Al Alvarado & Karen Griffen, Cal. Energy Comm’n., Revised Methodology to Estimate the Generation Resource Mix of California Electricity Imports: Update to the May 2006 Staff Paper 1, 1, 3 (2007).

18. See Seth Hilton, The Impact of California’s Global Warming Legislation on the Electric Utility Industry, Electricity J. , Nov. 2006, at 13. The three major investor-owned utilities import 3-15 percent of their total supply in the form of out-of-state coal-fired power. Id. The Los Angeles DWP imports half its power from such sources. Id.

19. Weinzimer, supra.

20. Lisa Weinzimer, Debate Heats up over Allocating CO2 Allowances in Calif., Generators Deny Windfall is Possible, Electric Util. Week , April 28, 2008, at 13. Load served and historical emissions both would be factors in determining the amount of allowances given. Id.

21. Richard Cowart, Regulatory Assistance Project, Addressing Leakage In a Cap-and-Trade System , 1 (2006) .

22. N.Y. State Dep’t. of Envtl. Conservation, Final