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Carbon and the Constitution

State GHG policies confront federal roadblocks.

Fortnightly Magazine - April 2009

Generic Environmental Impact Statement 107 (2008) .

23. See Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Stakeholder Meeting, Stakeholder Comments 17-18 (Mar. 12, 2007); Morgan Hansen, Emissions Trading: EU ETS, U.S. Voluntary Market & Carbon Credit Projects as Offsets 21 (Apr. 2008) (unpublished Master’s thesis, Duke University).

24. Cowart, supra, at 3.

25. Mary Powers, PSEG ‘Leakage’ Plan Would Cost New Jersey Ratepayers $50 Million Annually, Group Says, Electric Util. Week , July 14, 2008, at 8.

26. See Bolster, supra, at 745.

27. Fed. Energy Reg. Comm’n v. Mississippi, 456 U.S. 742, 757 (1982).

28. New Energy Co. of Ind. v. Limbach, 486 U.S. 269, 273 (1988) (citing Bacchus Imports, Ltd. v. Dias, 468 U.S. 263, 270-273 (1984); H.P. Hood & Sons, 336 U.S. 525, 532-533 (1949).

29. Or. Waste Sys., 511 U.S. at 98 [citing Wyoming v. Oklahoma, 502 U.S. 437 (1992); Welton v. Missouri, 91 U.S. 275 (1876)].

30. Steven Ferrey, Environmental Law: Examples & Explanations 148-49 (4th ed. 2007).

31. Or. Waste Sys., Inc. v. Dep’t of Envtl. Quality, 511 U.S. 93, 99 (1995).

32. 512 U.S. 186 (1994).

33. Id. at 207 n.20 (quoting Brief for Respondent at 40).

34. Healy, 512 U.S. at 207 n.20 (quoting City of Philadelphia, 437 U.S. at 626-27) (“[W]hatever New Jersey’s ultimate purpose, it may not be accomplished by discriminating against articles of commerce coming from outside the State unless there is some reason, apart from their origin, to treat them differently.”).

35. City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey, 437 U.S. 617, 626-27 (1978) ; see also C. & A. Carbone, Inc., v. Town of Clarkstown, 511 U.S. 383, 393 (1994) (holding that the town can’t “justify the flow-control ordinance as a way to steer solid waste away from out-of-town disposal sites that it might deem harmful to the environment. To do so would extend the town’s police power beyond its jurisdictional bounds”).

36. Bacchus Imports, Ltd. v. Dias, 468 U.S. 263, 270 (1984); Minnesota v. Clover Leaf Creamery Co., 449 U.S. 456, 471 n.15 (1981).

37. Maine. v. Taylor, 477 U.S. 131 (1986).

38. Id at 151-52 (1986).

39. Id. at 151.

40. See Dean Milk Co. v. City of Madison, 340 U.S. 349 (1951) (holding that a state must pursue first reasonable nondiscriminatory regulatory alternatives); Fort Gratiot Sanitary Landfill, Inc. v. Mich. Dep’t of Natural Res., 504 U.S. 353 (1992).

41. Steven Ferrey, Inverting Choice of Law in the Wired Universe: Thermodynamics, Mass and Energy, 45 WM. & MARY L. REV. 1839, 1865-1888 (2004) [hereinafter Ferrey, Inverting Choice].

42. See Ferrey, Law of Independent Power , supra, § 10.79; Ferrey, Inverting Choice, supra , at 1843, 1908-14 .

43. 455 U.S. 331 (1982).

44. Lisa Weinzimer, Schwarzenegger Advisor says States, Regions will Take Lead on Climate Program, Electric Util. Week , June 16, 2008, at 7.

45. See Reg’l. Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Goals, Proposed Tasks, Short-Term Action Items (2003) at 1. Reg’l. Greenhouse Gas Initiative.

46. For a discussion of various power

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