In several recent utility rate cases, regulators have disallowed portions of utility compensation expenses, on the basis that difficult local economic conditions justify pay cuts. However, when...
Zone of Reasonableness
Coping with rising profitability, a decade after restructuring.
During the past three years, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (the FERC) has initiated five investigations into the justness and reasonableness of interstate gas pipeline rates. 1 Under the Natural Gas Act of 1938 (the NGA), the FERC has a statutory obligation to assure that such pipelines rates are just and reasonable. Case precedent makes clear that no single just and reasonable rate exists for a given pipeline at a given time; instead, for rates to meet the just and reasonable standard, they must remain within a zone of reasonableness. In judicial review of its decisions, the courts have held the FERC to an end result within that zone. 2 The FERC initiated the examination of these five pipelines’ rates precisely because their Form 2 financial data appeared to indicate excessive profitability falling outside that zone.
For interstate gas pipelines, the passage of time can lead to rates that exceed the cost of service because traditional ratemaking is front-loaded by the nature of straight-line depreciation of pipeline investments. Such is particularly true for gas pipelines since the FERC invoked the standard of “incremental” pricing for new capacity additions, which effectively segregates the cost of service for new projects from the pipeline property that supports existing shipper capacity entitlements. 3 Without the need to invest in new pipeline equipment to support existing capacity contracts, the passage of time will drive down the rate base supporting existing contracts through depreciation. This in turn lowers the financing charges associated with carrying the rate base, and therefore lowers the cost of service. 4 Traditional ratemaking, however, requires that rates stay constant in dollar terms until the next rate case. In the period before the restructuring of pipeline regulation was completed in about 2000, the FERC required pipelines to file periodic NGA Section 4 rate cases to assure that rates didn’t stray too far from the cost of service. With the implementation of open access, incremental pricing and competitive gas transport culminating in Order Nos. 636 5 and 637, 6 however, FERC eliminated the ongoing requirement for pipelines to file regular Section 4 rate cases.