In the aftermath of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami, questions are arising about the safety and survivability of reactors located in geologically active areas. Major changes might be required...
Inclining for the Climate
GHG reduction via residential electricity ratemaking.
On the campaign trail, then-Senator Obama made ambitious statements regarding renewable energy investment and greenhouse-gas (GHG) reduction goals. For example, in October 2007, Senator Obama announced plans to, if elected president, reduce emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 and 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. 1 Achieving such ambitious goals will require major changes on many fronts. In the electric power sector, an essential component of significant GHG reduction is energy efficiency.
In the arena of electricity efficiency, much attention has been given to building codes and weatherization, efficient lighting and appliance standards, and other measures that can be undertaken by businesses and households, often with incentives from the local electric utility. Rate design has received less attention. However, building on a survey the authors performed for BC Hydro in its 2008 residential rate-design application, 2 a study by the authors suggests that rate design—in particular residential inclining block rates—can help achieve GHG-reduction goals. The same opportunity does not exist for time-varying rates.
Admittedly rough and based on simplifying assumptions, the study’s calculation suggests rate redesign could reduce GHG emissions by one to two percent. While seemingly negligible, this GHG reduction easily could be obtained at low cost and in short time. Thus, both regulators and electric utilities should consider residential inclining block rate design as part of their efforts in complying with the forthcoming GHG-reduction targets.
Fair and Functional
An inclining block rate has a per-kilowatt hour charge that increases with a consumer’s monthly kWh consumption. Most inclining block rates use a two-tier design, though three- or more tier designs do exist. The consumption and price levels set for each tier depend on the specific goals of the utility and the characteristics of its residential customer class. To collect the same revenue as an otherwise applicable flat rate, a revenue-neutral inclining block rate’s lowest tier charge must be below, and the highest tier charge above, the flat rate. For example, a hypothetical two-tier inclining block rate might provide an original flat rate of 10-cents per kWh, with a tier-1 rate 15-percent lower, and a tier-2 rate 25-percent higher (see Figure 1) .