In 2009, unconventional shale gas emerged as the dominant driver in North American natural gas markets. Rapid increases in shale gas production and shale-driven upward revisions to the U.S....
Leaning on Line Pack
Green energy mandates might overburden gas pipelines.
of ancillary services that can and should be exploited to accommodate laudable green path objectives.
Rationalizing the use of this valuable commodity can be achieved through careful study, improved communication, and relatively minor changes to the ISO’s tariffs in order to allocate the extra costs invariably borne by generators who are asked by the ISO to ramp up or down quickly. Arguably, there is no such thing as a minor change to an ISO’s tariff. But the track record of industry cooperation, innovation and achievement is the foundation on which renewable energy can be integrated on an expedited basis. FERC and state interest in renewable energy goals should help promote tariff changes that meet these objectives.
1. U.S. DOE EERE, “20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply,” DOE/GO-102008-2567, May 2008.
2. General Electric, “New England Wind Integration Study,” November 2010.
3. NYISO, “Growing Wind: Final Report of the NYISO 2010 Wind Generation Study,” September 2010.
4. EnerNex Corp. for NREL, “Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study,” January 2010.
5. General Electric, “New England Wind Integration Study,” November 2010.
6. Argonne National Laboratory, “Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009,” ANL/DIS-10-1, November 2009.
7. NYISO, “Growing Wind: Final Report of the NYISO 2010 Wind Generation Study,” September 2010.
8. Id., p. 45
9. CAISO, “Integration of Renewable Resources: Operational Requirements and Generation Fleet Capability at 20% RPS,” Aug. 31, 2010.
10. Brian Parsons, et al. , “Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States,” July 2006, NREL/CP-500-39955.
11. J. Nicolas Puga, “The Importance of Combined Cycle Generating Plants in Integrating Large Levels of Wind Power Generation,” The Electricity Journal , Vol. 23, Issue 7, p. 33, August/September 2010.
12. Eileen O’ Grady, Reuters, “Loss of Wind Causes Texas Power Grid Emergency,” Feb. 27, 2008.
13. E. Ela and B. Kirby, “ERCOT Event on February 26, 2008: Lessons Learned,” July 2008, NREL/TP-500-43373.
14. FERC Docket No. RM05-28-000, “NAESB Report on the Efforts of the Gas-Electric Interdependency Committee,” February 2006.
15. Meysam Qadrdan, et al. , “Impact of a Large Penetration of Wind Generation on the GB Gas Network,” Energy Policy , Vol. 38, p. 5684, 2010.
16. An LMS100 is GE’s quick-start gas turbine offering 100 MW of electricity at 44 percent thermal efficiency with a wide range of operating flexibility for peaking, mid-range and base-load operation with lower start-up emissions and 10-minute starts.