Does demand response increase or decrease overall electricity usage?
Thermal Energy Storage: Putting Green Solutions on Site
achievable market penetration for TES.
5. The difference in emissions costs for day vs. night is greater than the difference in source energy use; however, some of that difference is due to emissions being generated in different air basins. Conservatively, then, emissions reductions must at least equal the source energy and site energy savings combined - 20 to 40 percent per kilowatt-hour of annual cooling energy (using the "incremental energy" method), depending on the TES system application.
6. These savings occur when a heat-recovery storage system is used with a cool storage system to use heat from the chillers in lieu of a separate boiler.
7. For example, the Geneva Electric Utilities article 117A requires that any building over 10-Kw demand be designed to limit the maximum needed power by cutting excessive thermal charges." Moreover, the designs reviewed by a commission must analyze the possibility of thermal storage and waste-heat recovery.
8. South Coast Air Quality Management District, 1994 Air Quality Management Plan, Appendix IV-A, Stationary Source Control Measures, "Area Source Credit Program for Commercial and Residential Combustion Equipment [NOx]"
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