Electromagnetic terrorism has huge implications for the international power industry. The North American electric power network is vulnerable to electronic intrusions launched from anywhere in the...
Squeezing BTUs From Light Bulbs
Incandescent light bulbs create a cogeneration benefit by warming the indoor spaces they illuminate.
fluorescent bulb used half time, this present value analysis extends just over nine years.
11. For example, some off-brand compact fluorescent bulbs of 25-27 W are available for $5-$8 plus applicable tax and shipping through Internet sales. Bulbs.com 2005, 1000bulbs.com 2005.
12. Dow Jones 2005, 2006a. The firm, off-peak price (California-Oregon and Nevada Oregon borders) for Oct. 12, 2005, was $80.72/MWh; for Jan. 18, 2006, it was $40.43/MWh. We use off-peak prices as representative of evening hours when light bulbs are more likely to be used.
13. As the resulting $5.59 change in present value would still leave a benefit to bulb switching in Table 6, under that scenario, for each heating fuel.
14. Dow Jones 2006b. The reported Henry Hub natural gas price was $8.84 for Jan. 18, 2006.
15. For example, at a two cents per kilowatt hour marginal electricity generation cost, incandescent bulbs are more efficient if even a sixth of the bulb’s heat output replaces natural gas heating—the most economical of the three fossil fuel options. This assumes a flow-based scenario for hydro generation where the water cannot be stored for use at higher-cost times.
16. State of California 2003.
17. Direct use of natural gas in a home furnace is more efficient, per delivered BTU, than is using gas to generate electricity to deliver to the same home for resistance heating. Note that a $13.50 natural-gas price, as used above for heating costs, would imply about a 13.5 cents/kWh electricity marginal generating cost.