On a recent trip to Germany to study the country’s energy policy, the phrase “energy transition,” or “energiewende” as the Germans s
Capturing Ocean Heat
Ocean thermal energy conversion offers a timely renewable alternative.
U.S. Department of Energy, 1990; “The Potential of Renewable Energy: An Interlaboratory White Paper;” SERI/TP-260-3674
17. Craven, John P., and Patrick K. Sullivan, 1998; “ Utilization of Deep Ocean Water for Seawater Desalination ;” International OTEC/DOWA Association (IOA) Newsletter, Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 1998 .
18. Daniel, T.H., 1985; “Aquaculture Using Cold OTEC Water;” Oceans ‘85 Conference Record; Nov. 12-14, San Diego, CA. Sponsored by Marine Technology Society & IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society.
19. It should be noted that the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) has several commercial tenants making use of deep-sea cold water for various mariculture and nutraceutical products ( see http://www.nelha.org/tenants/commercial.html for additional details).
20. Van Ryzin, J.R., and T. Leraand, 1992; “Air Conditioning with Deep Seawater: A Cost-Effective Alternative;” Sea Technology Magazine , Sept., 1992, p. 37
21. Cornell University installed a “Lake Cooling” system in 1999 that uses 100 m deep water from Cayuga Lake to cool the campus. This 20,000 ton system saves Cornell over 20 million kw-hrs annually, even though the air conditioning is only needed in the summer time. Cornell University Lake Source Cooling (LSC) project, Humphreys Service Building, Ithaca, NY.
22. Daniel, T.H., 1993; “An Overview of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion and its Potential By-Products;” Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology, ‘92, PACON International, p. 263-272.
23. The operations and maintenance (O&M) of facilities covers all that broad spectrum of services required to assure the built environment is available to, and will, perform the functions for which they were designed and constructed. O&M is comprised of the day-to-day activities necessary for the built entities to perform their intended function. Operations and maintenance are combined into the one term O&M because an entity cannot operate without being maintained.
24. NASA, 1994; “What is the Value of Space Exploration? A Symposium Sponsored by the Mission From Planet Earth Study Office, Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, and the University of Maryland at College Park, July 18-19, 1994; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; http://cmex.ihmc.us/CMEX/data/vse/session2.html; (accessed Dec. 1, 2008).
25. Of the fourteen top world oil net exporters listed on the U.S. Department of Energy Web site ( www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/topworldtables1_2.html), two are listed as state sponsors of terrorism by the U.S. Department of State ( www.state.gov/s/ct/c14151.htm). The State Department lists Iran, Sudan, and Saudi Arabia as areas of concern for breeding terrorists. Further, Venezuela, which is the third largest supplier of oil to the United States, has a regime that is actively hostile to our interests.
26. Kraemer. Thomas D., Commander, U.S. Navy; 2006; Addicted to Oil: Strategic Implications of American Oil Policy ; U.S. Army Warfare College.
27. Included among the nations with no existing commercial nuclear power infrastructure that are considering building nuclear power plants are Algeria, Australia, Chile, Estonia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Poland, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, and the United Arabic Emirates.There are also nations with an existing commercial nuclear power infrastructure that could benefit from additional assistance, including Argentina, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Slovenia.