Default enrollment for time-varying rates, with an opt-out, will reduce peak demand and far more than a default flat rate with a TVR opt-in.
Are subsidies the best way to achieve smart grid goals?
25. Ahmad Faruqui, Sanem Sergici and Ahmed Sharif, “The Impact of Informational Feedback on Energy Consumption- A Survey of Experimental Evidence,” Energy 35 (2010), 1598-1608.
26. Peter Fox-Penner, Smart Power: Climate Change, the Smart Grid, and the Future of Electric Utilities , Island Press, 2010.