The traditional central-station grid is evolving toward a more distributed architecture, accommodating a variety of resources spread out across the network. An open and thoughtful planning...
Smart Grid in America and Europe (Part II)
Past accomplishments and future plans.
annex C at 54–68.
54. McKinsey Report , supra note 1, at 15, 16.
55. The Measuring Instruments Directive , 2004/22/EC, regulates metering products, including water and gas meters, to ensure accuracy, durability, and security. Council Directive 2004/2, on Measuring Instruments, 2004 O.J. (L 135) (EC).
56. The three organizations were the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Standardisation Mandate to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the Field of Measuring Instruments for the Development of an Open Architecture for Utility Meters Involving Communication Protocols Enabling Interoperability, M/441 (Mar. 12, 2009); Expert Group 1 Report , supra note 26, at 15–19, 25–26; see also E.U. FP5 Lessons, supra note 38, at 21.
57. McKinsey Report , supra note 1, at 17; Expert Group 1 Report , supra note 26, at 25–26; E.U. FP5 Lessons, supra note 38, at 22, 23.
58. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Pub. L. No. 110-140, § 1305, 121 Stat. 1723 (codified at 15 U.S.C. § 17385).
59. American Recovery and Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Pub. L. No. 111-5, 123 Stat. 115; see also NIST Information Related to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Nat’l Inst. Standards & Tech., www.nist.gov/recovery/ (last updated Oct. 5, 2010).
60. Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Project, Nat’l Inst. Standards & Tech., http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid (last updated Oct. 7, 2010).
61. Nat’l Inst. of Standards & Tech., special pub. 1108, NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards (2010); see also Press Release, Mark Bello, Nat’l Inst. of Standards & Tech., “ NIST Issues First Release of Framework for Smart Grid Interoperability ,” Jan. 19, 2010.
62. Press Release, Mark Bello, Nat’l Inst. of Standards & Tech., “ NIST Finalizes Initial Set of Smart Grid Cyber Security Guidelines ,” Sept. 2, 2010.
63. Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards , 75 Fed. Reg. 63,462 (Oct. 15, 2010).
64. Office of Elec. Delivery & Energy Reliability, U.S. Dep’t of Energy, Smart Grid Research & Development: Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP): 2010-2014 [hereinafter U.S. MYPP] at 10.
65. Elec. Power Research Inst., “Executive Summary,” in Power Delivery System of the Future: A Preliminary Estimate of Costs and Benefits 1–2 (2004).
66. EEGI Roadmap & Implementation Plan , supra note 42, at 6 (describing the E.U. electricity network as “based on technology that was developed more than 30 years ago” and “designed for one-way energy flows from large centralized fully controllable power plants to the customers at the other end of the network”).
67. ICF Consulting, “ The Economic Cost of the Blackout: An Issue Paper on the Northeastern Blackout ” 2 (2003). U.S.-Can. Power Sys. Outage Task Force, Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations (2004).
68. Nat’l Energy Tech. Lab., U.S. Dep’t of Energy, “ Understanding the Benefits of the Smart Grid ” 6 (2010).
69. John Cox, “ Study Faults PG&E’s Customer Service, Not SmartMeters ,” Bakersfield.com, Sept. 2, 2010; “ San